Off-grid and hybrid energy storage systems are assuredly more complex than on-grid because, in addition to solar panels, battery storage is also included. In the context of energy storage, following off-grid and hybrid energy storage technologies are used extensively:

  • Lead-Acid, Lead Batteries are the most commonly used type of battery in the world and have been commercially available since 1890. It is a wholly developed technology with the lowest storage costs as far as energy storage technologies go. The life-cycle is low as compared to others, however. Its energy density is relatively less, which makes it bulky and difficult to handle.
  • lithium - ion batteries are relatively evolved in portable electronics but less evolved in EVs and stationary off-grid applications segment. They have a relatively high life cycle and high energy densities. Lithium-ion cell properties vary considerably, depending more on the material used for the cathode and the anode.
  • Redox flow batteries can run on a variety of scales, including both large-scale and off-grid. Their high life cycle makes them promising in terms of long-term applications costs. Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are also available the potential to decouple power and energy capacity, making them particularly versatile in terms of design. However, this technology has not been commercialized to its full extent than its competing technologies. RFBs mass and volume densities hold low for EV applications.
  • When it comes to hybrid systems, they combine the technologies of two different systems, resulting in a system that is both efficient and effective, which also cuts out the disadvantages associated with each of them. For example, consider- hybrid lead-acid/lithium battery system which offers low costs than pure lithium-ion systems but also has a higher life cycle than pure lead-acid systems, leading to a 20% increase in capacity. There is one thing that needs to be kept in mind when engaging with hybrid systems, it’s that such systems are highly complex and sensitive, which makes them less effective for smaller applications at present.